Identity, Equality, Unity
This week in Pakistan there were two incidents of violence against Shia Muslims. Twenty-two were killed in a Taliban bus attack. It is heartbreaking that there are still any individuals calling themselves Muslims who can believe that there is any possible justification for such acts at any time, but even more particularly during the month of Ramadan. Our prayers are with the victims and their families. Those who carried out these acts bring shame on the entire Ummah. Somehow we have to find a way to stop this senseless violence.
I am greatful that MPAC immediately issued a condemnation of these despicable acts. Such condemnations are not new, they have been made many times in the past, but somehow there are some Muslims who either are unaware of or ignoring actual Islamic teachings.
A movement towards making a clear public declaration that division between Sunnis and Shias will not be accepted or tolerated by American Muslims has been ongoing in the American Muslim community for some time. Imam Abdul Malik Mujahid called for a dialogue in April of 2005, and sponsored a gatheringwhich issued a resolution in December of 2006. In April of 2007 at a meeting in Los Angeles a number of scholars signed on to a Muslim Code of Honor initiated by MPAC, and in May many more signed on inDetroit, and in September many more at the ISNA convention.
For those who might not be aware of the history of this movement in the U.S. it might be helpful to provide background in some detail.
In February of 2006 I wrote an article on Sunni Shia Unity after the bombing of a Shia Mosque in Iraq. In that article, I noted
There are a lot of questions we need to ask – who actually did this? – who benefits? – who is responsible for stirring up hatred? – who are the real enemies of the Muslim umma?
There have been both Muslims and non-Muslims who have been responsible for stirring up animosity and prejudice between Sunni’s and Shia’s – and it has spilled over into random violence for a number of years.
A recent MPAC statement against the current violence pointed to one Muslim source of the sectarianism: “MPAC believes that a climate of intolerance in the Muslim world against Shiia’s has been fermented in part by poisonous anti-Shia teachings that emanate primarily from a strict Wahabi ideology.” An article by Yoginder Sikand also pointed to the influence of some within the Muslim community to paint those who do not follow their particular interpretation as “the enemy”
One example of non-Muslim sources for this increased sectarianism may be found in a Rand Study released in 2004 which suggested exploiting Sunni Shia and Arab non-Arab divides to promote U.S. Policy.
Imam Sa’dullah Khan has pointed out that: ”Political machinations often deepened the wounds of division, and the historical Sunni-Shi’a differences are still passionately employed by people with vested interests for political or “religious” hegemony.”
Imam Khomeini said in a speech at Qum 20 years ago.
“The filthy hands which aggravate the differences between the Shi’ites and Sunni Muslims, belong neither to the Shi’ites nor the Sunnis. They are the hands of the colonialists which plan to take the Islamic countries out of our hands. The colonial powers who want to plunder our wealth through various schemes and conspiracies are the ones who hatch plots for creating division under the pretext of Shi’ism or Sunnism.”
The Executive Director of CAIR Nihad Awad said: “The atrocious attack on the Askariya shrine is an obvious attempt to incite sectarian violence. The Iraqi people, and Muslims worldwide, must not fall into the trap set by those who seek division and mutual hatred. Sectarian violence serves only the enemies of Iraq and the Iraqi people.”
Anyone who is responsible for instigating sectarian division and violence is either an enemy of Islam, or doing the work of the enemies of Islam.
The Qur’an has given us clear guidelines to follow.
“O you who believe! Stand out firmly for God, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to Piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that you do.” [Quran 5:8]
And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah’s favor on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love, so that by His Grace, ye became brethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make His Signs clear to you: That ye may be guided. Qur’an 3:103
Verily, this brotherhood of yours is a single brotherhood, and I am your Lord and Cherisher: therefore serve Me (and no other). Qur’an 21:92 and 23:52
“As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, thou hast no part in them in the least: their affair is with Allah. He will in the end tell them the truth of all that they did.” Qur’an 6:159
Many of our scholars have provided clear rulings
The Amman Statement (which was issued in July of 2005 at a historical meeting of 170 Sunni and Shia religious scholars from 40 countries) is so important it needs to be reproduced here in full. In fact, it should be reproduced in huge quantities and passed out at every mosque, and each of us should keep a few copies ready to pass out to any who raise the issue of sectarianism. Note particularly that eight schools of law are recognized.
“In accordance with the fatwas issued by the Honourable and Respectable Grand Imam Shaykh al-Azhar, the Grand Ayatollah Al-Sayyid Ali Al-Sistani, the Honourable and Respectable Grand Mufti of Egypt, the Honourable and Respectable Shi‘i clerics (both Ja‘fari and Zaydi), the Honourable and Respectable Grand Mufti of the Sultanate of Oman, the Islamic Fiqh Academy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Grand Council for Religious Affairs of Turkey, the Honourable and Respectable Grand Mufti of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Respectable Members of its National Fatwa Committee, and the Honourable and Respectable Shaykh Dr. Yusuf Al-Qaradawi;
And in accordance with what was mentioned in the speech of His Hashemite Majesty King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein, King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan during the opening session of our conference; And in accordance with our own knowledge in sincerity to Allah the Bounteous; nd in accordance with what was presented in this our conference by way of research papers and studies, and by way of the discussions that transpired in it; We, the undersigned, hereby express our approval and affirmation of what appears below:
1) Whosoever is an adherent of one of the four Sunni Schools of Jurisprudence (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi‘i and Hanbali), the Ja‘fari (Shi‘i) School of Jurisprudence, the Zaydi School of Jurisprudence, the Ibadi School of Jurisprudence, or the Thahiri School of Jurisprudence is a Muslim. Declaring that person an apostate is impossible. Verily his (or her) blood, honour, and property are sacrosanct. Moreover, in accordance with what appeared in the fatwa of the Honourable and Respectable Shaykh al-Azhar, it is not possible to declare whosoever subscribes to the Ash‘ari creed or whoever practices true Sufism an apostate. Likewise, it is not possible to declare whosoever subscribes to true Salafi thought an apostate. Equally, it is not possible to declare as apostates any group of Muslims who believes in Allah the Mighty and Sublime and His Messenger (may Peace and Blessings be upon him) and the pillars of faith, and respects the pillars of Islam and does not deny any necessary article of religion.
2) There exists more in common between the various Schools of Jurisprudence than there is difference. The adherents to the eight Schools of Jurisprudence are in agreement as regards the basic Islamic principles. All believe in Allah the Mighty and Sublime, the One and the Unique; that the Noble Qur’an is the Revealed Word of Allah; and that our master Muhammad, may Blessings and Peace be upon him, is a Prophet and Messenger unto all mankind. All are in agreement about the five pillars of Islam: the two testaments of faith (shahadatayn), the ritual prayer (salat), almsgiving (zakat), fasting the month of Ramadan (sawm), and the Hajj to the Sacred House of Allah. All are also in agreement about the foundations of belief: belief in Allah, His Angels, His Scriptures, His Messengers, and in the Day of Judgement, in Divine providence — good and evil. Disagremment between the ‘ualma’ is only with respect to the ancillary branches of religion (furu) and not the principles and fundamentals (Usul). Disagreement with respect to the ancillary branches of religion (furu) is a mercy. Long ago it was said that variance in opinion among ‘ulama’ “is a good affair”.
3) Acknowledgement of the Schools of Jurisprudence within Islam means adhering to a fundamental methodology in the issuance of fatwas. No one may issue a fatwa without the requisite personal qualifications which each School of Jurisprudence defines. No one may issue a fatwa without adhering to the methodology of the Schools of Jurisprudence. No one may claim to do absolute Ijtihad and create a new School of Jurisprudence or to issue unacceptable fatwas that take Muslims out of the principles and certainties of the Shari‘ah and what has been established in respect of its Schools of Jurisprudence.
4) The essence of the Amman Message, which was issued on the Blessed Night of Power in the year 1425 H. and which was read aloud in Masjid al-Hashimiyyin, is adherence to the Schools of Jurisprudence and their fundamental methodology. Acknowledging the Schools of Jurisprudence and affirming discussion and engagement between them ensures fairness, moderation, mutual forgiveness, compassion, and engaging in dialogue with others.
5) We call for casting aside disagreement between Muslims and unifying their words and stances; reaffirming their mutual respect for each other; fortifying mutual affinity among their peoples and states; strengthening the ties of brotherhood which unite them in the mutual love of Allah. And we call upon Muslims to not permit discord and outside interference between them.
A hopeful sign that ordinary Muslims are getting fed up with those who are determined to spread sectarian prejudice is the recent protest march in London where up to 15,000 Sunnis and Shias marched and protested violence and demand unity.
There are other hopeful signs, and as Dahr Jamail has pointed out, even in Iraq both the Sunni and the Shia religious leadership (including Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani and Hojatoleslam Moqtada al-Sadr) have urged restraint.- “As quickly as these horrible events began, they were called to an end and replaced by acts of solidarity between Sunni and Shia across Iraq. This, however, was not shown by western corporate media. … Demonstrations of solidarity between Sunni and Shia went off over all of Iraq: in Basra, Diwaniyah, Nasiriyah, Kut, and Salah al-Din. Thousands of Shia marched shouting anti-American slogans through Sadr City, the huge Shia slum area of Baghdad, which is home to nearly half the population of the capital city. … Baghdad had huge demonstrations of solidarity, following announcements by several Shia religious leaders not to attack Sunni mosques.”
Yasin Aljibouri made a statement that beautifully sums up what should be the Muslim position on this issue “If some Shi’ahs speak ill of their Sunni brethren and their beliefs, the rest of the Sh’iahs of the world should not on their account be condemned, and the same is true for Sunnis who speak ill of their Shi’ah brethren and their beliefs. There are fanatics in all religions and sects of the world, and their fanaticism must be condemned. There are extremists among the Sunni and Shi’ah, but their views cannot be held as the criterion whereby the entire doctrine is judged. … We pray the all-Mighty Who did not Call us anything but Muslims, neither Sunnis nor Shi’ahs, to strengthen our faith and our Brotherhood and unite us together under the shade of His Deen so that we deserve to be Called Muslims, and so that His Messenger Muhammad will not be ashamed of us on the Day of Resurrection.”
Any other position can only lead us far from the teachings of the Qur’an and towards disaster. We must develop long memories and be vigilant in identifying both internal and external enemies who would encourage us to let loose the rope of Allah.
In 2006, I also participated in the Shia-Sunni Dialogue to Save Lives. Here is the statement that we published and shared widely
Communiqué of the Shia-Sunni Dialogue to Save Lives
A national Planning Meeting of The Shia-Sunni Dialogue to Save Lives was held in Chicago on December 25, 2006 to develop strategies to systematically involve Muslims in the United States in reducing violence and saving lives of victims of Shia-Sunni conflicts. The deadly conflict between Shias and Sunnis in Iraq provided the backdrop for the urgent tone of the all-day session, hosted by Imam Abdul Malik Mujahid, on behalf of Sound Vision Foundation and co-chaired by Dr. Esmail Koushanpour, Executive Director, Islamic Cultural Center, Northbrook, IL, and Imam Khalid Fattah Griggs, Community Mosque of Winston-Salem, NC.
The twenty-two participants from Chicago and across the country recognized that Muslims in the United States are ideally situated to take a leading role in the Shia-Sunni Dialogue to Save Lives process because of the relative lack of sectarian conflict between the groups in this country and the presence of Muslims whose relatives and friends are still living in the midst of sectarian conflict.
The Muslim community in the US feels the pain of the victims of Shia-Sunni violence in Iraq, Pakistan and Lebanon. A primary impetus for this feeling of empathy is the saying of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, “The Muslim Ummah is like a single body; when one part of the body is sick, the whole body catches a fever.”
As a result of its deliberations, the Planning Group concluded that it is imperative that the Muslim community in the United States actively and methodically engage in critical dialogue and education concerning Shia-Sunni Dialogue to Save Lives. To facilitate this process, the Planning Group for the Shia-Sunni Dialogue to Save Lives developed the following Resolution and Recommendations for Action:
Whereas, the Quran mandates Muslim unity in the verse: “And hold fast, all together, by the Rope of God, and be not divided among yourselves; And remember with gratitude God’s favor on you when you were enemies, and He united your hearts so by His favor you became brothers; and you were on the brink of a pit of fire, then He saved you from it; thus does God make clear to you His signs that you may follow the right way.” (Quran 3:103)
Whereas, the Quran makes an unequivocal stand for justice in the verse: “Oh you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, be he rich or poor, God is a Better Protector to both (than you)” (Quran 4:135)
Whereas, although sectarian divisions and some conflicts have existed among Muslims, the magnitude of the Shia-Sunni conflict in Iraq has little precedent in the Muslim history with the indiscriminate targeting of innocent men, women and children, and the destruction of ancient, venerated mosques
Whereas, the seeds for divisiveness for the entire Muslim world, including Muslims in the United States, are being sown through the Shia-Sunni conflict in Iraq
Whereas, the Muslim community in the United States is composed of thoughtful, caring Shias and Sunnis concerned about the future of Shia-Sunni relations in this country and around the world
Whereas, the differences between Shias and Sunnis have not precluded Shias from making the annual Hajj to GodÕs House in Makkah, Saudi Arabia or being accepted as Muslims by an overwhelming majority of past and present Sunni jurists
BE IT RESOLVED
That the Planning Group for the Shia-Sunni Dialogue to Save Lives calls upon all Muslim Imams, Khateebs, Organization and Opinion Leaders in the United States to engage their local/national constituencies in critical intra-faith dialogue and education about Shia-Sunni relations and how to promote cooperation. Dialogue helps to isolate extremist fringes. Best practices should be shared
That interested Muslim Scholars, Imams, Khateebs, Masjids, Organization and Opinion Leaders, and Individuals assist efforts like the Shia-Sunni Dialogue to Save Lives in crafting a strategy that can be employed throughout the country to increase understanding and enhance cooperation between the groups
That a national Shia Sunni dialogue be held in Chicago on Saturday, April 21, 2007
That Muslims of Arab and South Asian origin residing in the United States organize intra-faith dialogue between Shias and Sunnis of their area of origin residing in this country, share best practices, and promote similar efforts with relatives, friends, and leading Muslims in their home countries.
Recommendations for Action (Individuals)
Ask the Imams, Khateebs, Masjids, Muslim Organizations and Opinion Leaders you know to sign the attached resolution and send us their name, title, organization name (only for identification purpose), mailing address, email, and phone numbers
Ask leaders to participate in April 21, 2007 National Shia-Sunni Dialogue to Save Lives Develop a personal relationship with a Sunni if you are a Shia, and with a Shia if you are a Sunni. Share meals together in each others’ home or in a public facility.
Organize and/or attend an Intra-Faith Dialogue or educational session on the core beliefs of Shias and Sunnis. You may be surprised to learn that almost all the core beliefs of both are the same.
Discourage others from making comments that are disparaging to either Shias or Sunnis.
Emphasize the message of the sanctity of human life in the Quran.
Make dua that Allah help this Ummah overcome Shia-Sunni conflict and violence.
Recommendations for Action (Organizational)
Get your organization to sign the attached RESOLUTION.
Publicly declare your Islamic Center, Masjid, or Muslim Organization open to ALL MUSLIMS, and work towards making this testimony a reality.
Request Muslim scholars from both the Shia and Sunni communities, including the various Fiqh councils in North America, to issue fatwas: Reaffirming that the adherents of both Sunni and Shia Schools of Jurisprudence are Muslims.
Condemning sectarian violence and killing.
Make dua that Allah help this Ummah overcome Shia-Sunni conflict and violence and that Allah join the hearts of the Believers in unity.
If you are an imam/khateeb, please sign and fax or email the attached resolution.
If you are not an imam, get your masjid and imam to sign and then fax or email the resolution.
Demand Shia Sunni dialog to save lives!
In 2007 this sectarian violence reached the United States when attacks were carried out against at least a dozen Shia Muslim-owned businesses and mosques in Detroit. MPAC immediately condemned this and again called on leaders of the Muslim community to speak out and not only condemn such violence, but also educate their communities.
And, American Muslim leaders signed on to an Intrafaith Code of Honor. You can view the full statement here. The leaders who initially signed this were: Salam Al-Marayati (MPAC Executive Director), Imam Sayed Moustafa al-Qazwini (founder and Imam at the Islamic Educational Center of Orange County), Hussam Ayloush (Executive Director of CAIR-LA), Dr. Ridha Hajjar (Religious Director of the Ahlul-Bayt Mosque-CA), Dr. Maher Hathout (MPAC Senior Advisor), and Shakeel Syed (Executive Director of the Islamic Shura Council of Southern California). Then, at the ISNA Convention many more American Muslim leaders signed on to the statement.
In 2010, MPAC published a statement after another series of massacres. MUSLIM COMMUNITIES WORLDWIDE NEED TO CONDEMN SHIA MASSACRES. That statement read:
Sectarian violence has once again reached unprecedented levels in various Muslim majority countries during this past week. Bloodletting continues without reproach in places like Karbala, Iraq and Karachi, Pakistan, where Shia pilgrims were commemorating the 40th day after the martyrdom of Imam Husayn, the grandson of Prophet Muhammad. As the referenced Quranic verse is tossed aside, we are sinking into an abyss of sectarian venom, with brother killing brother.
Let’s face the realities of this gruesome set of massacres. Those who recruited these suicide bombers are too cowardly to show their faces to the Muslim world, as over 100 Muslims were killed by fellow Muslim suicide bombers. For the culprits of these atrocities to play the role of God in determining who is, and who is not a believer, their fate will rest with the Almighty. The enemies of Islam are reprieved from working any more, since Muslims are doing their dirty work.
We call on the Iraqi and Pakistani governments to secure their own peoples. As their national security budgets grow, they continue to spend much of the country’s wealth on weapons and defense. We call on Sunni scholars to speak in one voice condemning this cancerous practice of suicide attacks against Shia Muslims. Scholars and Muslim activists, especially in the Gulf, where anti-Shia rhetoric is endemic to the region, must stand up and make clear that the killing of other Muslims guarantees nothing but misery in this life and the hereafter.
Muslim leaders from around the world signed The Amman Initiative to oppose terrorism and sectarian violence. It is now time to move beyond the rhetoric and demand action.
Muslims in America are blessed by the fact that sectarian division and violence has not raised its ugly head in our communities and we must prevent that from ever happening in the future. That must take place by declaring our stand now—our prayers for the deceased and their families, our demand for justice, and our declaration to maintain the unity of Muslims.
And, today we are back where we started. Although, there are still individuals who have not accepted that violence is not the solution to anything, we can’t stop trying to get out the message. As American Muslims we may not have political influence in Pakistan or other countries where such acts are taking place, but it seems that if the leaders of the national American Muslim organizations, and our American Muslim scholars issued a strong joint statement, it might have some effect.
On TAM we have discussed the issue of sectarianism between Sunni and Shia in many articles. SHIA & SUNNI Unity Resources contains an extensive article collection.
SUMMARY of the Amman Statement on 8 schools of law: Based on the fatwas provided by these great scholars (who included the Shaykh Al-Azhar; Ayatollah Sistani and Sheikh Qaradawi), in July 2005 CE, H.M. King Abdullah II convened an international Islamic conference of 200 of the world’s leading Islamic scholars ‘Ulama) from 50 countries. In Amman, the scholars unanimously issued a ruling on three fundamental issues (which became known as the ‘Three Points of the Amman Message’): They specifically recognized the validity of all 8 Mathhabs (legal schools) of Sunni, Shi’a and Ibadhi Islam; of traditional Islamic Theology (Ash’arism); of Islamic Mysticism (Sufism), and of true Salafi thought, and came to a precise definition of who is a Muslim. Based upon this definition they forbade takfir (declarations of apostasy) between Muslims. Based upon the Mathahib they set forth the subjective and objective preconditions for the issuing of fatwas, thereby exposing ignorant and illegitimate edicts in the name of Islam. These Three Points were then unanimously adopted by the Islamic World’s political and temporal leaderships at the Organization of the Islamic Conference summit at Mecca in December 2005. And over a period of one year from July 2005 to July 2006, the Three Points were also unanimously adopted by six other international Islamic scholarly assemblies, culminating with the International Islamic Fiqh Academy of Jeddah, in July 2006. In total, over 500 leading Muslim scholars worldwide as can be seen on this website [click here to see the entire list] unanimously endorsed the Amman Message and its Three Points. This amounts to a historical, universal and unanimous religious and political consensus (ijma’) of the Ummah (nation) of Islam in our day, and a consolidation of traditional, orthodox Islam. The significance of this is: (1) that it is the first time in over a thousand years that the Ummah has formally and specifically come to such a pluralistic mutual inter-recognition; and (2) that such a recognition is religiously legally binding on Muslims since the Prophet (may peace and blessings be upon him) said: My Ummah will not agree upon an error (Ibn Majah, Sunan, Kitab al-Fitan, Hadith no.4085). The specific item in this statement regarding Shia is: The specific item in this statement is as follows: 1) Whosoever is an adherent of one of the four Sunni Schools of Jurisprudence (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i and Hanbali), the Ja’fari (Shi’i) School of Jurisprudence, the Zaydi School of Jurisprudence, the Ibadi School of Jurisprudence, or the Thahiri School of Jurisprudence is a Muslim. Declaring that person an apostate is impossible. Verily his (or her) blood, honour, and property are sacrosanct. Moreover, in accordance with what appeared in the fatwa of the Honourable and Respectable Shaykh al-Azhar, it is not possible to declare whosoever subscribes to the Ash’ari creed or whoever practices true Sufism an apostate. Likewise, it is not possible to declare whosoever subscribes to true Salafi thought an apostate. Equally, it is not possible to declare as apostates any group of Muslims who believes in Allah the Mighty and Sublime and His Messenger (may Peace and Blessings be upon him) and the pillars of faith, and respects the pillars of Islam and does not deny any necessary article of religion.
Al AZHAR FATWA – Summary: 1) Islam does not require a Muslim to follow a particular Madh’hab (school of thought). Rather, we say: every Muslim has the right to follow one of the schools of thought which has been correctly narrated and its verdicts have been compiled in its books. And, everyone who is following such Madhahib [schools of thought] can transfer to another school, and there shall be no crime on him for doing so. 2) The Ja’fari school of thought, which is also known as “al-Shia al- Imamiyyah al-Ithna Ashariyyah” (i.e., The Twelver Imami Shi’ites) is a school of thought that is religiously correct to follow in worship as are other Sunni schools of thought.
Ahmed Deedat on Sunni Shia Unity 1982 http://www.inminds.com/unity.html
Imam Khomeini on Sunni Shia Unity 2000 http://www.inminds.com/imam-khomeini-on-unity.html
Yusuf al-Qaradawi’s Approach to Sunni Shia Dialoguehttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/yusuf_al_qaradawis_approach_to_shia_sunni_dialogue/
Al Sadr Calls for Sunni Shia Unity 2004 http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1192296/posts
Maulana Kalbe Sadiq’s Theology of Islamic Ecumenismhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/shia_sunni_dialogue_maulana_kalbe_sadiqs_theology_of_islamic_ecumenism/
Imam Abdul-Aziz al-Hakim Calls for Unity http://www.newspress.com/Top/Article/article.jsp?Section=WORLD&ID=564687461234902802
Sunni & Shia: I’m “Sushi”, Dr. Hesham A. Hassaballahttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/sunni_shia_im_sushi
Sunnis and Shias Uniting Against the U.S., Dahr Jamail 2004http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0514-03.htm
Sunnis and Shias: The Battle the U.S. Wants to Provoke, Naomi Klein 2004http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1186445,00.html
Sunnis and Shias Rally After Ashura Bombings http://iwpr.net/?p=icr&s=f&o=168242&apc_state=heniicr2004
Sunni Shia Unity, Dr. Shahid Atharhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/shia_sunni_unity/
Dialogue Between Shias and Sunnis, Muhammad Zakir Khan Azmihttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/dialogue_between_shias_and_sunnis/
Rand Report’s Attempt to Change Islam, Abdus Sattar Ghazalihttp://www.iviews.com/Articles/articles.asp?ref=IV0503-2647
RAND Corporation?s Ungracious Strategy For a Civil Democratic Islam?: Muslims Searching For Partners, By Javeed Akhter http://theamericanmuslim.org/2004march_comments.php?id=439_0_26_0_C
and the TAM section on RELIGION BUILDING containing numerous articleshttp://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2003nov_comments.php?id=469_0_23_30_C
Shia Mosque Bombings: Whose Bombs Were They?http://onlinejournal.com/artman/publish/article_532.shtml
Great Sacriledge at al-Askari Shrine http://www.iviews.com/Articles/articles.asp?ref=IV0602-2927
The El Salvador Option in Iraq: Flashback http://www.cfr.org/publication/7988/salvador_in_iraq.html