Identity, Equality, Unity
It is related by Sa‘d bin Abi Waqas (رضي الله عنه): I heard Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) say: One who has me as his master has Ali as his master. And I heard him say (to Ali (رضي الله عنه)): You are in my place as Harun was in Musa’s place, but there is no prophet after me. And I also heard him say (on the occasion of the battle of Khaybar): Today I shall bestow the flag on the person who loves Allah and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) .”
Ibn Majah transmitted this sahih (sound) hadith in the preface (al-muqaddimah) to his Sunan (1:90 # 121)
Ibn Abi Asim, as-Sunnah (p.608 # 1386)
Mizzi, Tuhfat-ul-ashraf bi-marifat-il-atraf (3:203 # 3901)
Nasai reproduced it with slightly different words in Khasis amir-il-mu’minim Ali bin Abi Talib (pp. 32,33 #91).
“I heard him say: Indeed, he (‘Ali) is in my place as Harun was in Musa’s place, but there is no prophet after me. And I heard him say: Today I shall bestow the flag on the person who loves Allāh and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), and Allāh and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) love him too. And I heard him say: One who has me as his master has ‘Ali as his master.”
Nasai narrated it with sound chain of trasmission in Khasais amir-il-mu’minim Ali bin Abi Talib (pp.33, 34, 88 # 10, 80)
Hindi related it in Kanz-ul-‘ummal (15:163 # 36496) through Amir bin Sa‘d with the addition of a few words.
Shashi narrated it through Amir bin Sa‘d bin Abi Waqas in al-Musnad (1:165, 166 # 106).
Ibn Asakir narrated it through Amir bin Sa‘d and Sa‘d bin Abi Waqas in Tarikh Dimashq al-kabir (45:88).
(This day, I have perfected your religion for you…[5:3]) was revealed, during the great day of Hajj (the Day of `Arafah, the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah) `Umar cried. The Prophet said, `What makes you cry’ He said, `What made me cry is that our religion is being perfected for us.
Now it is perfect, nothing is perfect, but it is bound to deteriorate.’
Tafsir Ibne Kathir, Tafsir of Surah 5, Verse 3
Tabari, Fakhrudin Razi, Thalabi, Qurtabi, Suyyuti connects the phrase with Ghadeer. Which would make sense in line with Ibn e Khatir as well since event of Ghadir is at the time of hijjat ul wida. Almizan says the same.
1. Imam Fakhru’d-Din Razi – Tafsir-e-Kabir Mafatihu’l-Ghaib.
2. Imam Ahmad Tha’labi – Tafsir-e-Kashfu’l-Bayan.
3. Jalalu’d-Din Suyuti – Tafsir-e-Durru’l-Manthur.
4. Abu’l-Hasan Ali Bin Ahmad Wahidi Nishapuri – Asbabu’n-
5. Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari – Tafsiru’l-Kabir.
6. Hafiz Abu Nu’aim Ispahani – Ma Nazal Mina’l-Qur’an fi Ali and
It must be noted that this event is a accepted part in all sects of Islam and is not rejected by any. But the interpretation may be different. Even ppl like Ibn e Tamyyah also accept the authenticity of the event (in his Minhaju’s-Sunna. )
The apologist version of the event is that some companions were unhappy with Imam Ali a.s over an issue and when Prophet SAW heard of it he in order to clear the air said Ali a.s to be Maula whose one of translations if of ‘friend’. While at face of it claim may sound reasonable its absurd when one looks at the event itself. Ghadir is a place where Prophet SAW was coming after hijjat ul wida to medina and comes in the way. There were thousands others who were with him also going back to Medina. If Prophet SAW wanted to clear some differences with the companions he could have called them and Imam Ali a.s in a separate place in a closed tent and clear the issue. It is also fitting that if believers have some misconception between them than their common friend should not make an issue out of it and privately settle their differences. Stopping thousands of ppl and delivering the whole sermon for the issue of 3 to 4 people seems highly inappropriate so that claim itself is invalid. Moreover using a word like Maula who has other meanings like Master would be confusing ppl on such a large scale.
“It is narrated by Bara bin Azib (رضي الله عنه): We were on a journey with Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). (On the way) we stayed at Ghadir Khum. There it was announced that the prayer was about to be offered. The space under two trees was cleaned for Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). Then he offered the zuhr (noon) prayer, and, holding Ali’s hand, he said: Don’t you know that I am even nearer than the lives of the believers? They said: Why not! He said: Don’t you know that I am even nearer than the life of every believer? They said: Why not! The narrator says that he said while holding Ali’s hand: One who has me as his master has Ali as his master. O Allah! Befriend the one who befriends him (‘Ali) and be the enemy of one who is his enemy. The narrator says that after this Umar (bin al-Khattab met Ali a.s he said to him: O Ibn Abi Talib! Congratulations, you have become the master of every male and female believer, morning and evening (for ever).”
Ahmad bin Hambal related it from Bara bin Azib through two different chains of transmission in al-Musnad (4:281)
Ibn Abi Shaybah, al-Musannaf (12:78 # 12167)
Here it must be noted that Hazrat Umar clearly called him master of believers so the word can not be used to be interpreted as friend but master.
Another view is of the sufis who interpret that he only had become the roohani Imam after this hadith and politically caliph would have been chosen by Ijma so the saqeefah event is not a betrayal of this hadith. Claim would have been right if it would have been some other religion apart from Islam. In Islam the best man in the leader. There was no political leader at time of Prophet SAW. He was spiritual and political leader both. And so should be the sunnah after him for his successors. The successorship also is important in terms of religion since Quran tells that every nation will be called by the name of his Imam of that time
ne day We shall call together all human beings with their (respective) Imams: those who are given their record in their right hand will read it (with pleasure), and they will not be dealt with unjustly in the least.
( سورة الإسراء , Al-Isra, Chapter #17, Verse #71)
And Imam of Muslims will be the same as Caliph as I already said about the example of Prophet SAW
Albani mentions in Silsilat as-Sahiha:
For whosoever I am Mawla then Ali is his Mawla, O Allah befriend those who befriend Ali and be enemy of those who are enemy to Ali (Albani Says): This hadith has come from Zayd ibn Arqam, S’ad bin Abi Waqqas, Buraida bin Husayb, Ali bin Abi Talib, Abu Ayyub al Ansari, Bara bin Azib, Abdullah Ibn Abbas, Anas bin Malik, Abu Sa’eed and Abu Hurraira (Ridhwan Allahu Ajmain), The Hadith of Zayd bin Arqam comes with 5 (different) ways!…
[Volume No. 4, Page No. 330, Hadith Number 1750]
For whosoever I am Mawla then Ali is his Mawla, O Allah befriend those who befriend Ali and be enemy of those who are enemy to Ali…It is narrated by Ahmed (4/370), Ibn Hibban in his *SAHIH* (2205) Ibn Abi Asim (1367, 1368), Tabarani (4968) (Albani) said: The Isnad is Sahih on the *CRITERIA OF BUKHARI* Haythami said in Majma (9/104): This is narrated by Ahmed and (all) its narrators are those of *SAHIH* except for Fatr bin Khalifa who is “THIQA (reliable)”…. (also) For Whosoever I am Mawla, Ali is Mawla, This is narrated by Tirimdhi (2/298) “WHERE HE DECLARED IT HASSAN SAHIH”
(Albani) said (on next page): The Isnaad is **Sahih on the criteria of Shaykhayn (i.e. Bukhari and Muslim)** – [Page No. 331-332]
I had previously mentioned Ibn e Tamyah acceptance of the event in general as well. But even with that he did try to show his bughz e Ali a.s by totally denying the second part of the hadith about enemy of Ali a.s being enemy of Prophet and Allah and raising concerns about the Maula part. Albani says about it on page 344:
As I saw Ibn Taymiyah considering the Hadith as doubtful in its first half and untrue in its second, I have had to write down these pages and prove that the Hadith is authentic. In my conception, the reason beyond such exaggeration of Ibn Taymiyah was that he used to be hasty in deciding the inauthenticity of some Hadiths before studying them!
Salsalatal-AHadith al-Sahihah , Nasirudin Albani, Page 344
عن زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه، قال: استشهد علي الناس، فقال: أنشد الله رجلا سمع النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول: اللهم! من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه، اللهم! وال من والاه، وعاد من عاداه. قال: فقام ستة عشر رجلا، فشهدوا
Translation:“Zayd bin Arqam (RA) has narrated that ‘Alī (RA), asking people to bear witness, said: I make you swear if anyone of you heard the Prophet (SAW) say: O Allāh! One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Befriend him who befriends him (‘Alī) and be his enemy who is his (‘Alī’s) enemy. So on this occasion sixteen men stood up and bore witness.”
►Ahmad bin Hambal narrated it in al-Musnad (5:370)
►Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (5:171 # 4985)
►Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (5:461) and Muhib Tabarī in ar-Riyād-un-nadrah fī manāqib-il-‘ashrah (3:127), and Dhakhā’ir-ul-‘uqbā fī manāqib dhaw-il-qurbā (pp.125, 126).
►Haythamī has said in Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:106) that those who concealed the facts lost their eyesight.
عن زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه، قال: لما رجع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم من حجة الوداع، ونزل غدير خم، أمر بدوحات فقمن، فقال: كأني قد دعيت فأجبت، إني قد تركت فيكم الثقلين، أحدهما أكبر من الآخر: كتاب الله تعالى، وعترتي، فانظروا كيف تخلفوني فيهما، فإنهما لن يتفرقا حتى يردا علي الحوض. ثم قال: إن الله عز وجل مولاي، وأنا مولى كل مؤمن. ثم أخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: من كنت مولاه فهذا وليه، اللهم! وال من والاه، وعاد من عاداه
Translation:“It is narrated by Zayd bin Arqam (RA): When Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) was returning after the Hajjat-ul-wadā‘, he stayed at Ghadīr Khum. He commanded that a canopy should be put up and so it was done. Then he said: It seems as if I am about to breathe my last which I shall accept. Indeed, I am leaving two important things in your midst which exceed each other in importance:One (is) Allāh’s Book and the other (is) my progeny. Now it is to be seen how do you treat both of them after me and they will not be separated from each other, and they will appear before me at the Fountain of kawthar. Then added: Surely Allāh (SWT) is my Master and I am the master of every believer. Then, holding ‘Alī’s hand, he said: One who has me as his master has this (‘Alī) as his guardian. O Allāh! Befriend him who befriends him (‘Alī) and be the enemy of one who is his enemy.”
►Nasā’ī, as-Sunan-ul-kubrā (5:45, 130 # 8148, 8464)
►Hākim narrated it in al-Mustadrak (3:109 # 4576)
►Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (5:166 # 4969)
►Nasā’ī related it with a sou und chain of authorities in Khasā’is amīr-il-mu’minīn ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (pp.84, 85 # 76)
عن البراء بن عازب رضي الله عنه، قال: كنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم في سفر، فنزلنا بغدير خم، فنودي فينا: الصلاة جامعة، وكسح لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم تحت شجرتين، فصلى الظهر وأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: ألستم تعلمون أنى أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: ألستم تعلمون أنى أولى بكل مؤمن من نفسه؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: فأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه، اللهم! وال من والاه، وعاد من عاداه. قال: فلقيه عمر رضي الله عنه بعد ذلك، فقال له: هنيئا يا ابن أبي طالب! أصبحت وأمسيت مولى كل مؤمن ومؤمنة
Translation:“It is narrated by Barā’ bin ‘Āzib (RA): We were on a journey with Allāh’s Messenger (SAW). (On the way) we stayed at Ghadīr Khum. There it was announced that the prayer was about to be offered. The space under two trees was cleaned for Allāh’s Messenger (SAW). Then he offered the zuhr (noon) prayer, and, holding ‘Alī’s hand, he said: Don’t you know that I am even nearer than the lives of the believers? They said: Why not! He said: Don’t you know that I am even nearer than the life of every believer? They said: Why not! The narrator says that he said while holding ‘Alī’s hand: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Befriend the one who befriends him (‘Alī) and be the enemy of one who is his enemy. The narrator says that after this ‘Umar (bin al-Khattāb (RA)) met ‘Alī (RA) and said to him: O Ibn Abī Tālib! Congratulations, you have become the master of every male and female believer, morning and evening (for ever).”
►Ahmad bin Hambal related it from Barā’ bin ‘Āzib through two different chains of transmission in al-Musnad (4:281)
►Ibn Abī Shaybah, al-Musannaf (12:78 # 12167)
►Ibn Kathīr in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:169; 5:464)
►Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (5:167, 168)
► Ibn Athīr, Asad-ul-ghābah (4:103)
► Dhahabī has said in Siyar a‘lām-in-nubalā’ (2:623, 624)
عن سعيد بن وهب وعن زيد بن يثيع رضي الله عنهما، قالا: نشد علي رضي الله عنه الناس في الرحبة من سمع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول يوم غدير خم إلا قام. قال: فقام من قبل سعيد ستة ومن قبل زيد ستة، فشهدوا أنهم سمعوا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول لعلي رضي الله عنه يوم غدير خم: أليس الله أولى بالمؤمنين؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: اللهم! من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه، اللهم! وال من والاه، وعاد من عاداه
‘Sa‘īd bin Wahb and Zayd bin Yuthay‘ رضي الله عنهما)) narrate that ‘Alī (RA) made people swear in an open plain and asked anyone to stand up who had heard the Prophet (SAW) say something on the day of Ghadīr Khum. The narrator says: Six (men) from Sa‘īd’s side and six from Zayd’s side stood up and bore witness that they had heard the Prophet (SAW) say about ‘Alī (RA) on the day of Ghadīr Khum: Is Allāh not nearer than the lives of the believers? The people said: Why not! Then he said: O Allāh! One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Be you his friend who befriends him (‘Alī), and be his enemy who is his (‘Alī’s) enemy.”
► Ahmd bin Hambal related it in al-Musnad (1:118)
► Ibn Abī Shaybah, al-Musannaf (12:67 # 12140)
► Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-awsat (3:69, 134 # 2130, 2275), al-Mu‘jam-us-saghīr (1:65) ► Diyā’ Maqdisī, al-Ahādīth-ul-mukhtārah (2:105, 106 # 480)
► Abū Nu‘aym, Hilyat-ul-awliyā’ wa tabaqāt-ul-asfiyā’ (5:26)
► Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:160)
► Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (13:157 # 36485).
►Nasā’ī narrated it with sound (sahīh) chain of authorities in Khasā’is amīr-il-mu’minīn ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (pp.90, 100 # 84, 95).
►Haythamī said in Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:107,108) that Tabarānī’s chain of authorities is hasan (fair).
From Saad bin Abi Waqqas with 3 (different) ways, the first one is narrated from Abdur Rahman Ibn Sabit and from him in the Marfu form… It is narrated by Ibn Majah (121), (Albani) said: The Isnad is **SAHIH** the second is narrated through Abdul Wahid bin Aimin from his father, this is narrated by Nasai in Khasais (16), The Isnad of it is **SAHIH** and the narrators of it are **all reliable** plus they are Narrators of Bukhari except for Aimin the father of Abdul Wahid who is **THIQA** as mentioned in Taqrib – [Page No. 335] Silsila Sahih
The Hadith: For Whosoever I am Mawla, Ali is Mawla, This is narrated by Tirmidhi and Nasai in Khasais, It has come with TOO MANY WAYS. There are many Asaneed of it which are Sahih and Hassan [Fath ul Bari, Sharah Sahih Bukhari, Volume No. 7, Page No. 74]
Some liars have faked a tradition to Hassan Muthana a.s that he denounced the idea that Ghadir event means the vicegrancy of Ali a.s.This tradition is present in Thabaqaat Ibn e Saad:
wla of someone, Ali is his Mawla?’”
He (Al Hasan) replied, “By Allah, if he meant by that Amirate and rulership, he would have been more explicit to you in expressing that, just as he was explicit to you about the Salah, Zakat and Hajj to the House. He would have said to you, ‘Oh people! This is your leader after me.’ The Messenger of Allah gave the best good counsel to the people (i.e. clear in meaning).”
( Al-Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Volume 5)
First ravi of the hadith:
Fazil Bin Marzooq. Ibn e Jauzi counts him in his book Zuafa wal Matrookeen as dhaeef and also mentions Ibn e Habban considered him Munkiar al Hadith. (Zuafa wal Matrookeen, Page 9)
Imam Nasai considered him weak. So did Uthman Warimi. ( Mizan Al Aitadal Fi Naqdi Rijjal, Dhahabi, Pg 440)
Ibn e Abi Hatim was of the view that report can not be discussed upon if it consists him.
Shababa Bin Sawar Fazari. Ibn e Abi Hatim was of the view that report can not be discussed upon if it consists him. Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal said he belonged to murjayya. ( Mizan Al Aitadal Fi Naqdi Rijjal, Dhahabi, Pg 390)
Moreover his meeting with Fazil Bin Marzooq is not proven
Other articles on Ghadir with more references and view points:
http://www.al-islam.org/short/ghadir.htm (orientalists view about Ghadir)